Ukucaciswa kobugcisa beMarmaray

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
• Kukho ubude be-13.500 m, ebandakanya i-27000 m, nganye apho idityaniswe imigca ephindwe kabini.
• Ukuhamba kwe-Throat kwenziwa nge-tuners entywilisiweyo kunye nomgca we-1 wokuntywila kumgaqo we-1386.999 m, umgca we-2 Umgaqo we-Emersion we-1385.673 m.
• Ukuqhubeka komjelo wokuntywila eAsia naseYurophu kubonelelwa ngemijelo yokumba.Ubude bomgca wokuxhumela umjelo we1 yi-10837 m, kunye nomgca wokuxhumela umjelo we-2 wokumba ubude yi-10816 m.
Indlela yendlela engenabhola ngaphandle kwendlela kwaye iyindlela yodlakulo eyingqayizivele ngaphandle komgaqo.
• Imizila yoololiwe esetyenzisiweyo yayiyi-UIC 60 kunye nemizila kaloliwe eqinileyo.
Izixhobo zoqhagamshelo zihlobo lwe-HM, oluhlobo olu-elastic.
• I-18 m ubude yoololiwe benziwe oololiwe abade.
Iibhloko ze-LVT zasetyenziswa kumhubhe.
Ukulungiswa kwendlela yaseMarmaray kwenziwa ngoomatshini benkqubo yangoku ngokwenza kwethu ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka ngokuhambelana nencwadana yemigaqo yolondolozo lwendlela ye-TCDD kunye neenkqubo zokulungisa iinkampani zomenzi ezilungiswe ngokwemigaqo ye-EN ne-UIC.
• Ukuhlolwa okubonakalayo komgca kwenziwa rhoqo yonke imihla, kwaye uhlolo lwe-ultrasonic lwendlela orenji lwenziwa ngayo inyanga nenyanga ngoomatshini abanovelwano.
• Ukulawulwa kunye nokugcinwa kwemijelo yenziwa ngokuhambelana nemigangatho efanayo.
• Iinkonzo zolondolozo ziqhutywa kunye noMphathi we-1, i-1 yoLondolozo kunye noLawulo lweeLungisa, i-4 Injini, ukuqeshwa kwe-3 kunye nabasebenzi be12 kulondolozo lweNdlela kunye noLawulo lweZiko leMarmaray.

AMANANI

LONKE LENGTH 76,3 km
Ubude beCandelo leMetro engagugiyo 63 km
Inani leendawo zokuma kumphezulu Izixhobo ze-37
Ubude bebonke beCandelo leNqanawa yeCrait Strait Tube yokuwela 13,6km
-Ukumba umda wobude 9,8 km
-Ubude beThubhu yeThubhulethi 1,4km
-Vula-Vala ubude beTonela 2,4 km
-Inani leZitishi eziPhantsi komhlaba Ze 3
Ubude besitishi I-225m (ubuncinci)
Inani labakhweli kuhambo olunye Umkhweli we-75.000 umgibeli / iyure / indlela enye
Ubuninzi bethambeka 18
Isikhululo soMlinganiselo 100 km / h
Isantya sokurhweba 45 km / h
Inani leeShedyuli zoLoliwe 2-10 imizuzu
Inani leziThuthi I-440 (unyaka we-2015)

UKUTHENGA IXESHA

Umjelo ofakwe ngaphakathi unezixhobo ezahlukeneyo eziveliswa edokini eyomileyo okanye kwindawo yokugcina iinqanawa. Ezi zinto ke ziya kutsalwa kwisiza, zitywiliselwe kumjelo kwaye zixhunywe zenze imeko yokugqibela yomjelo.

Kumzobo ongezantsi, isixhobo sithwalwa nge-catamaran docking barge kwindawo engaphantsi komhlaba. (Umjelo woMlambo iTama eJapan)

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Umfanekiso ongasentla ubonisa iipilisi zangaphandle zethusi eziveliswa kwinqanawa. Ezi zibhebhane zithathwa njengekhephe kwaye zifudukela kwisiza apho ikhonkrithi iya kugcwaliswa kwaye igcwaliswe (echazwe ngasentla) [I-Osaka Port yaseJapan (kunye nomzila wesitimela kunye neendlela) I-Tunnel] (i-Kobe Port Minatojima Tunnel eJapan).

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

phezulu; I-Tunnel Harbor Tunnel eJapan. sokunene; I-Tunnel yaseSouth Harbour yaseTurkey eJapan. Zomibini iziphelo zezinto zivaliwe ngokukhawuleza ngokwahlula; Ngaloo ndlela, xa amanzi ekhutshwa kunye nekhefu elisetyenziselwa ukwakhiwa kwezinto zizaliswe ngamanzi, ezi zinto ziya kuvunyelwa ukuthambisa emanzini. (Iifoto ezithathwe kwincwadi eshicilelwe nguMbutho weeJapan zokuCoca nokuBala iiNjineli.)

Ubude bomsele wokuntywila kumanzi olwandle e-Bosporus umalunga neekhilomitha ezili-1.4, kubandakanya nonxibelelwano phakathi komjelo wokuntywila kunye nemijelo yokugrumba. Umhubhe likhonkco elibalulekileyo kumgaqo kaloliwe ohamba ngaphesheya kweBosphorus; lo msele uphakathi kwesithili sase-Eminönü kwicala lase-Istanbul kunye nesithili se-Üsküdar kwicala lase-Asiya. Yomibini le migca kaloliwe yanda ngaphakathi kwinto efanayo yomatshini we-binocular kwaye yahlulahlulwe omnye komnye ngodonga olwahlulahlula phakathi.

Ngexesha le-20 leminyaka, kuye kwakhiwa imigudu engaphezu kwekhulu emanzini afakelwe ukuhanjiswa komgwaqo okanye oololiwe kwihlabathi. Imigudu ehambelanayo yakhiwa njengezakhiwo ezijikelezayo kwaye idibaniswe kwisitishi esasidelelwe ngaphambili kwaye sihlanganiswe nesimbozo sokugcina. Ezi ngxowa kufuneka zibe nesisindo esaneleyo sokuthintela ukubhukuda kwakhona emva kokubekwa.

Amathoni ahambelanayo akhiwa kwiinkalo zeempawu zengxube ezenziwe zikhethiweyo kwixesha elide lokulawula; nganye yale miba ngokuqhelekileyo i-100 m ubude, kwaye ekupheleni kwe-tube tunnel ezi zinto zixhunyiwe kwaye zidibaniswe phantsi kwamanzi ukuze zenze umgangatho wokugqibela we-tunnel. Iqela ngalinye liye litshintshana libeka ixesha elifutshane kwiindawo eziphelileyo; Ezi setethi zivumela ukuba izinto zijikeleze xa ngaphakathi kungomile. Inkqubo yokuqulunqa igqityiwe kwindawo eomileyo, okanye izinto ziqaliswe elwandle njengemkhunjini kwaye zivelise kwiindawo ezijikelezayo kufuphi nesayithi yokugqibela.

Izinto zentsimbi ezintywilisiweyo eziveliswe zaza zagqitywa enzonzobini eyomileyo okanye kwindawo yokugcina iinqanawa zaye zitsalelwa kwindawo; ukuntywila kumjelo kwaye uqhagamshelwe ukwenza isimo sokugqibela somjelo. Ngakwesobunxele: Into iyatsalwa iye kwindawo apho indibano yokugqibela iya kwenzelwa ukuntywila kwizibuko elixakekileyo.

Izinto zomhubhe zinokutsalwa ngempumelelo kumgama omde. Emva kokuba ukwenziwa kwezixhobo kwenziwa eTuzla, ezi zinto zalungelelaniswa zaya kwizikwere kwiibhloko ezakhiwe ngokukhethekileyo, ezinokuvumela ukwehliswa kwezinto kwitshaneli elungiselelwe emazantsi olwandle. Ezi zinto emva koko zazixutywa, zinika ubunzima obufunekayo ukuzehlisa kunye nokuntywila.

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Ukungenisa into kungumsebenzi ochitha ixesha kunye nongxamisekileyo. Emfanekisweni ongentla, into iboniswa ukuba inntywiliselwa ezantsi. Eli nqaku lilawulwa ngokuthe tye nge-anching kunye neesistim zekhebula kunye neendlela ezingena kwizibiyeli ezitsalayo zilawula indawo ethe tye de kube indawo leyo ihliswa phantsi kwaye ihleli ngokupheleleyo kwisiseko. Kumfanekiso ongezantsi, isikhundla sento inokujongwa yi-GPS ngexesha lokuntywila. (Iifoto ezithathwe kwincwadi epapashwe yiJapan Association of Screening and Enjiniya yoNzala.)

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Izinto ezintywilisiweyo zidityaniswa kunye ukuphela-kwezinto kunye nezinto zangaphambili; emva koku, amanzi kwindawo yokudityaniswa phakathi kwezinto ezixhunyiwe zakhutshwa. Ngenxa yenkqubo yokukhupha amanzi, uxinzelelo lwamanzi kwelinye icala lezinto luyicinezela irhasi yerabha ukuze igasket ingabi manzi. Izinto zokwexeshana zokuxhasa zabanjwa ngelixa isiseko phantsi kwezinto zigqityiwe. Ijelo emva koko ligcwalisiwe kwaye kwafuneka ukhuselo olufunekayo. Emva kokufaka into yokuphelisa umhubhe wechubhu, iindawo ezihlanganayo zomjelo wokugrumba kunye ne-tube tunnel zazaliswa zizinto zokugcwalisa ezibonelela ngokungahambisi kwamanzi. Iinjini zeTuneling (i-TBMs) zazisetyenziselwa ukuqhuba imigodi de kufike imigudu.

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Umphezulu womhubhe ugutyungelwe kukubuyela umva ukuqinisekisa uzinzo kunye nokhuseleko. Yonke le mifanekiso mithathu ibonakalisa ukubuyela umva kwebhawari eyenzelwe ngokwakho esebenzisa indlela yetrmi. (Iifoto ezithathwe kwincwadi epapashwe yiJapan Association of Screening and Enjiniya yoNzala)

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Kwitonela elingene ngaphakathi komda, kukho igumbi elinye elinamagumbi amabini, ngalinye linendawo enye yokuhamba ngololiwe. Izinto ezifakwa ngaphakathi emanzini aselwandle ukuze emva kokusebenza zisebenze iprofayili yolwandle iyafana neprofayili yolwandle ngaphambi kokuqala kokwenziwa.

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato

Enye yezinto ezilungileyo zendlela yokuntywila ithubhu yokucoca kukuba icandelo lokuwela eli tonela linokulungelelaniswa ngokufanelekileyo neemfuno ezithile zecandelo ngalinye. Ngale ndlela, unokubona amacandelo ahlukeneyo anqamlezayo asetyenziswa kwihlabathi liphela kumfanekiso apha ngasentla. Imigudu yokuntywila yakhiwe ngendlela yeekhonkrithi ezomeleziweyo, ngendlela esemgangathweni, ezineemvulophu zentsimbi okanye ezingenanto kwaye ezisebenza kunye nezinto zangaphakathi zekonkriti eziqinisiweyo. Ngokuchasene noko, iindlela ezintsha zokwenza izinto zisetyenzisiwe eJapan ukusukela kwiminyaka engamashumi asithoba, kusetyenziswa ii-concretes ezingasomelelwanga kodwa ezibunjiweyo ezenziwe ngesandwich phakathi kwemvulophu yangaphakathi nangaphandle yentsimbi; Ezi zinto zibonisa ukuba zidibene ngokugqibeleleyo. Obu buchule bunokuphunyezwa ngokuphuhliswa kolwelo olusulungekileyo kunye nekhonkrithi edityanisiweyo. Le ndlela inokuphelisa iimfuno ezinxulumene nokusebenza kunye nokuveliswa kwemivalo yentsimbi kunye nobumba, kwaye ekuhambeni kwexesha, ngokubonelela ngokhuseleko olufanelekileyo lwe-cathodic kwiimvulophu zensimbi, iingxaki zongqubano zinokupheliswa.

UKUGUQUKA KANYE NELINYE IXESHA LESITHILI

Iitayile phantsi kweIstanbul ziquka umxube weendlela ezahlukeneyo.

Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Iimpawu zomtshato womtshato
Icandelo elibomvu lendlela liqukethe umjelo ofakwe ngaphakathi, ngelixa la macandelo amhlophe eyakhiwa kakhulu njengemijelo yokugraya kusetyenziswa oomatshini bokuchwetha (i-TBM), kwaye amacandelo aphuzi enziwe ngokusebenzisa ubuchule obuVulelekileyo (C&C) kunye neNdlela eNtsha yase-Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) okanye ezinye iindlela zendabuko. . Eli nani libonisa iMatshini yokuDibanisa iThubhu (iTBM) enamanani e-1,2,3,4 kunye ne-5.
Imijelo yokumba ngokuvulwa kwilitye kusetyenziswa oomatshini bokuchwetha (i-TBM) yayixhunyiwe kumjelo wokuntywila. Kukho umjelo kwicala ngalinye kunye nomgaqo kaloliwe kwindawo nganye kwezi. Iitaneli zenziwe ngomgama owaneleyo phakathi komnye nomnye ukwenzela ukuthintela ukuba zichaphazeleke kakhulu. Ukulungiselela ukubonelela ngento yokubalekela kumjelo ofanayo ngexesha likaxakeka, imigudu yoxhumano olufutshane yakhiwe rhoqo ngamaxesha.
Iitayile eziphantsi kwesixeko zixhunyiwe kwenye nenye kwimitha ye-200; ke, kubonelelwa ukuba abasebenzi benkonzo banokudlula ngokulula ukusuka kwesinye isiteshi ukuya kwesinye. Ukongeza, kwimeko yengozi kuyo nayiphi na imigudu yokumba, olu nxibelelwano luya kubonelela ngeendlela zokuhlangula ezikhuselekileyo kunye nokubonelela ukufikelela kwabasebenzi bokuhlangula.
Ngomatshini obolekayo (TBM), uphuhliso olufanayo luye lwaphawula kunyaka wokugqibela we-20-30. Imifanekiso ibonisa imizekelo yaloo mishini yanamhlanje. Ubuninzi bekhuselo lunokudlula i-15 yamitha ngeendlela ezikhoyo.
Ukusebenza koomatshini banamhlanje bokudibanisa umatshini kunokuba nzima kakhulu. Lo mfanekiso usebenzisa umatshini oneemilo ezintathu, osetyenziswa eJapan, ukuvula umjelo obumbambe obumbambe. Obu buchule bunokusetyenziswa apho amaqonga esikhululo efuna ukwakhiwa, kodwa angafuneki.
Apho icandelo lomjelo litshintshile, kusetyenziswe iinkqubo ezithile ezikhethekileyo, kunye nezinye iindlela (Indlela eNtsha yase-Austrian Tunneling Way (NATM), ukuqhuqha ukuqhekeza kunye nomatshini wokuvula igalari). Iinkqubo ezifanayo zasetyenziswa ngexesha lokumbiwa kwesikhululo seSirkeci, ezazicwangciswe kwigalari enkulu enzulu evulekileyo naphantsi komhlaba. Izikhululo ezibini ezahlukeneyo zakhiwa phantsi komhlaba zisebenzisa ubuchwepheshe obuvaliweyo; Ezi zikhululo zibekwe kuYenikapı nase Üsküdar. Apho kusetyenziswa khona imigudu evaliweyo, ezi tunnels zakhiwa njengebhokisi yecandelo elinye lokusebenzisa udonga olwahlulahlula phakathi kwemigca emibini.
Kuzo zonke iitanji kunye nezitishi, kukhutshwa amanzi kunye nokufakwa komoya ukuze kuthintele ukuvuza. Kwizikhululo zikaloliwe ezingaphantsi kwedolophu, imigaqo yoyilo efana naleyo isetyenziselwa izikhululo zamanzi eziphantsi komhlaba ziya kusetyenziswa. Le mifanekiso ilandelayo ibonisa umsele owakhiwe ngendlela ye-NATM.
Apho imigca yokulala edibene nomnqamlezo okanye imigca yokudibana esecaleni ifuneka, iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuhombisa zisetyenziswa ngokudibanisa. Kule tonela, indlela yeTBM kunye neendlela zeNATM zisetyenziswa kunye.

UKUFUMANEKA KUNYE NOBUCHULE

Iinqanawa zokumba izinto zokumba zazisetyenziswa ukwenza ezinye izinto zokumbiwa kwamanzi phantsi komhlaba kunye nokuzikhuphela umsebenzi wejelo lomjelo.
Umjelo we-Tube ogxothiweyo wabekwa elwandle lweBosphorus. Ke ngoko, kwavulwa ijelo kumgangatho wolwandle omkhulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba ulungiselele izinto zokwakha; Ngaphaya koko, eli ziko lenziwa ngendlela yokuba umaleko wokugubungela kunye nokukhusela ungabekwa phezu komsele.
Ukumbiwa komhlaba okuphantsi kwamanzi kunye nokutsala kwemingxunya yalo msele kwenziwe kwenziwa ezantsi kusetyenziswa izixhobo zokumba ezinobunzima obungaphantsi kwamanzi kunye nezixhobo ezomileyo. Inani elipheleleyo lomhlaba othambileyo, isanti, igravel kunye nelitye elithe lakhutshwa liye lagqitha kwinani elipheleleyo le-1,000,000 m3.
Eyona ndawo inzulu yayo yonke indlela ibekwe kwiBosphorus kwaye inobunzulu beemitha ezili-44. I-Imersion Tube Ingqimba yokukhusela ubuncinci yeemitha ze-2 ibekwe kumhubhe kwaye icandelo lokuwela iityhubhu limalunga neemitha ze-9. Ke, ubunzulu bokusebenza kwe-dredger yayimalunga neemitha ze-58.
Kwakukho inani elilinganiselweyo leentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezixhobo ezazinokuvumela oku ukuba kwenziwe. Dredging Dredger kunye neTug Bucket Dredger zasetyenziswa kwimisebenzi yovavanyo.
I-Grab Bucket Dredger yisithuthi esinzima kakhulu esibekwe kwi-barge. Njengoko igama le sithuthi libonisa, linamabhakethi amabini okanye ngaphezulu. Ezi iibhakethi ziyi-bhakethi ezivulekileyo xa idilesi ichithwa kwi-barge kwaye imisiwe kwi-barge kwaye imisiwe. Ngenxa yokuba iibhakethi zinzima kakhulu, ziyanca zisezantsi. Xa ibhakethi liphakanyiswa ukusuka ngaphantsi kolwandle, livale ngokuzenzekelayo, ukwenzela ukuba izixhobo zihanjiswe phezulu kwaye zilayishwe kwiibhaji ngeendlela zeebhakethi.
I-bredgers enamandla kakhulu ibhakethi iyakwazi ukucima malunga ne-25 m3 kumjikelezo owodwa wokusebenza. Ukusetyenziswa kweebhakethi ezinokubaluleka kuninzi kuncedo kwizinto ezilukhuni eziphakathi kwaye azikwazi ukusetyenziswa kwizixhobo ezinzima ezifana nesitye kunye nedwala. Iidroke zokubamba ibhakethi ziyingxenye yamandulo endala; Nangona kunjalo, zisetyenziswe ngokubanzi emhlabeni wonke ukuphandwa kwamanzi kunye nokudwengulwa.
Ukuba umhlaba ongcolisekileyo uza kuskenwa, ezinye iirhasi zerabha ezikhethekileyo zinokufakwa kwiibhakethi. La matywina anqanda ukukhutshwa kweentsalela ezigcinwe kunye namasuntswana amahle kwikholamu yamanzi ngexesha lokutsalwa kwebhakethi ukusuka ezantsi elwandle okanye aqinisekise ukuba isixa samasuntswana akhutshiweyo angagcinwa kumanqanaba asikelwe umda.
Uncedo lwebhakethi kukuba lithembeke kakhulu kwaye liyakwazi ukumba nokuntywila kwindawo enzulu. Umngeni kukuba inqanaba lokumba liyehla kakhulu njengoko ubunzulu bonyuka, kwaye ukuba okwangoku kwiBosphorus kuya kuchaphazela ukuchaneka kunye nokusebenza ngokubanzi. Ukongeza, ukumbiwa kunye nokujonga akukwenziwa kwizixhobo ezilukhuni ngamadolo.
I-Dredger Bucket Dredger sisikhephe esikhethekileyo esifakwe ngohlobo loku dredging kunye nesixhobo sokusika ngombhobho wokufunxa. Ngelixa inqanawa ihamba ngendlela, umhlaba uxutywe namanzi uxutywe usuka ezantsi elwandle ungene enqanaweni. Kuyimfuneko ukuba i-sediments ihlale kwinqanawa. Ukuze kuzaliswe inqanawa ngomthamo omkhulu, kuya kufuneka uqiniseke ukuba isixa esikhulu samanzi ashiyekileyo angaphumela ngaphandle kwisitya ngelixa inqanawa ihamba. Xa inqanawa igcwele, iya kwindawo yokulahla inkunkuma kwaye ihambisa inkunkuma; inqanawa ke ilungele umjikelo olandelayo wexanduva.
I-Power Bucket Dredgers enamandla kakhulu inokubamba malunga neetoni ze-40,000 (malunga ne-17,000 m3) yezixhobo kumjikelezo omnye osebenzayo kwaye unokumba nokutshekisha kwi-70 yamitha. I-Dredger Bucket Dredgers iyakucima kunye nokuyihlola kwizinto eziluhlaza kwizinto ezikhuni eziphakathi.
Izinzuzo zeDredger Bucket Dredger; amandla aphezulu kunye nenkqubo yeselula ayithembeli kwiinkqubo zokumisa. Iingxaki; kunye nokungabikho kokuchaneka kunye nokucubungula kunye nokudibana nale mikhumbi kwiindawo eziseduze nolwandle.
Kumdibaniso wokudityaniswa kwesiphelo somjelo wokuntywila, amanye amatye ayembiwa kwaye anqunyulwa kufutshane nonxweme. Zimbini iindlela ezahlukeneyo ezilandelwayo kule nkqubo. Enye yezi ndlela kukusebenzisa indlela esemgangathweni yokuntywila kunye nokuqhuma kwamanzi; Enye indlela kukusetyenziswa kwesixhobo esikhethekileyo sokuhambisa, esivumela ilitye ukuba lahlukane ngaphandle kokuqhushumba. Zombini iindlela ziyacotha kwaye zixabiso.

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